Saturday, November 30, 2019
The Taming Of The Shrew - Analytic Play Review The Taming Of The Shrew by William Shakespeare is probably one of Shakespeare's earliest comedies. Its plot is derived from the popular 'war of the sexes' theme in which males and females are pitted against one another for dominance in marriage. The play begins with an induction in which a drunkard, Christopher Sly, is fooled into believing he is a king and has a play performed for him. The play he watches is what constitutes the main body of The Taming Of The Shrew. In it, a wealthy land owner, Baptista Minola, attempts to have his two daughters married. One is very shrewish, Katherine, while the other is the beautiful and gentle Bianca. In order to ensure Katherine is married, Baptista disallows Bianca to be espoused until Katherine is wed, forcing the many suitors to Bianca to find a mate for Katherine in order for them to vie for Bianca's love. Many critics of the play condemn it for the blatant sexist attitude it has toward women but closer examination of the play and the intric acies of its structure reveal that it is not merely a story of how men should 'put women in their place'. The play is, in fact, a comedy about an assertive woman coping with how she is expected to act in the society of the late sixteenth century and of how one must obey the unwritten rules of a society to be accepted in it. Although the play ends with her outwardly conforming to the norms of society, this is in action only, not in mind. Although she assumes the role of the obedient wife, inwardly she still retains her assertiveness. Most of the play's humour comes from the way in which characters create false realities by disguising themselves as other people, a device first introduced in the induction. Initially this is accomplished by having Christopher Sly believe he is someone he is not and then by having the main play performed for him. By putting The Taming Of The Shrew in a 'play within a play' structure, Shakespeare immediately lets the audience know that the play is not rea l thus making all events in the play false realities. Almost all characters in the play take on identities other than their own at some point of time during the play. Sly as a king, Tranio as Lucentio, Lucentio as Cambio, Hortensio as Litio and the pedant as Vicentio are all examples of this. Another example of this is Katherine as an obedient wife. In The Taming Of The Shrew, courtship and marriage are not so much the result of love but rather an institution of society that people are expected to take part in. As a result of the removal of romance from marriage, suitors are judged, not by their love for a woman, but by how well they can provide for her. All suitors compare the dowry each can bring to the marriage and the one with the most to offer 'wins' the woman's hand in marriage. This competition for marriage is like a game to the characters of the play. While discussing the courtship of Bianca with Gremio, Hortensio says "He that runs fastest gets\ The ring" (Act I, scene i, l. 140-141) likening receiving permission to wed Bianca to winning a race. In the game, however, women are treated like objects that can be bought and sold rather than as human beings. This is expected since the society is a patriarchal one. For example, Lucentio, Tranio and Petruchio are all defined with reference to their fathers and all the elderly authority figures, like Baptista and Vicentio, are men. The taming of Katherine is not a women's shrewishness being cured as much as it is a woman being taught the rules of the 'patriarchal game'. Katherine has learned how to be assertive and with this knowledge is able to control men, and a woman controlling a man is considered 'against the rules' of the game. The play ends with Katherine proving that she is truly cured of her 'shrewishness' and is the most obedient of the three newlywed wives at the end of the play. This is demonstrated
Tuesday, November 26, 2019
What Judges Look for in a Science Fair Project How do you know what makes a great science fair project? Here are some pointers for making sure you have a good project, based on what science fair judges are looking for in your project. Be OriginalScience fair judges are looking for inventions and innovations. Try to come up with an original idea for your science fair project. Find a new way to test something or a fresh application for a product or a novel way to process data. Look at something old in a new way. For example, rather than compare different types of coffee filters, you could compare different household materials (paper towels, napkins, toilet paper) for use as coffee filters if you ever ran out. Be ClearHave a well-defined, easy-to-understand goal or objective. Make sure the title of your project is related to your purpose. Make it crystal clear what you are doing and why. Understand Your Science Fair ProjectIts not enough to have an easy-to-understand poster or presentation. Judges will ask you questions about your project, in part to see whether or not you understand what you have done. This weeds out people who basically had their parents, friends, or teacher do their project for them. You need to understand what you did, why you did it, and what conclusions you could make based on your results. Be ProfessionalHave a neat, professional-looking poster and dress nicely for the science fair. While you should do your project yourself, its fine to enlist help from a parent or teacher in putting together a poster and an outfit. You are not being graded on your appearance, but taking pride in your appearance will help you radiate confidence. Neatness counts with your project since good organization will beÃ making it easier for the science fair judge to follow what you have done. Time EffortScience fair judges reward effort. You can get excellent marks on a science fair project that only took you an hour to do, but you should realize investing time and energy in your project will give you an edge over other good projects. A project does not need to be time-consuming or complicated, but one which requires you to collect data over time will do better than a project you whipped out in a weekend. Spending time on your project demonstrates your interest in it, plus taking the time t o think about it usually means you come out of the project with a better understanding of how science works. Answer QuestionsYou can impress science fair judges by answering their questions politely and completely. Try to radiate confidence. If you dont know the answer to a question, admit it and try to offer a way you could come up with the answer. Here are some common questions asked by science fair judges:How did you come up with the idea for this science fair project?How long did you spend on the project?What background research did you conduct? What did you learn from it?Did anyone help you with the project?Does this project have any practical applications?Did you try anything that did not work or did not give you expected results? If so, what did you learn from this?What would be the next step in this experiment or study if you wanted to continue your work? Do you need more help? Here are 10 tips to help you impress the science fair judges.
Friday, November 22, 2019
The Eichmann Trial After being found and captured in Argentina, Nazi leader Adolf Eichmann, known as the architect of the Final Solution, was put on trial in Israel in 1961. Eichmann was found guilty and sentenced to death. At midnight between May 31 and June 1, 1962, Eichmann was executed by hanging. The Capture of Eichmann At the end of World War II, Adolf Eichmann, like many top Nazi leaders, attempted to flee defeated Germany. After hiding in various locations within Europe and the Middle East, Eichmann eventually managed to escape to Argentina, where he lived for a number of years with his family under an assumed name. In the years after World War II, Eichmann, whose name had come up numerous times during the Nuremberg Trials, had become one of the most wanted Nazi war criminals. Unfortunately, for many years, no one knew where in the world Eichmann was hiding. Then, in 1957, the Mossad (the Israeli secret service) received a tip: Eichmann may be living in Buenos Aires, Argentina. After several years of unsuccessful searches, Mossad received another tip: Eichmann was most likely living under the name of Ricardo Klement. This time, a team of secret Mossad agents was sent to Argentina to find Eichmann. On March 21, 1960, the agents had not only found Klement, they were certain he was the Eichmann they had been hunting for years. On May 11, 1960, the Mossad agents captured Eichmann while he was walking from a bus stop to his home. They then took Eichmann to a secret location until they were able to smuggle him out of Argentina nine days later. On May 23, 1960, Israeli Prime Minister David Ben-Gurion made the surprise announcement to the Knesset (Israels parliament) that Adolf Eichmann was under arrest in Israel and was soon to be put on trial. The Trial of Eichmann Adolf Eichmanns trial began on April 11, 1961 in Jerusalem, Israel. Eichmann was charged with 15 counts of crimes against the Jewish people, war crimes, crimes against humanity, and membership in a hostile organization. Specifically, the charges accused Eichmann of being responsible for the enslavement, starvation, persecution, transportation and murder of millions of Jews as well as the deportation of hundreds of thousands of Poles and Gypsies. The trial was to be a showcase of the horrors of the Holocaust. Press from around the world followed the details, which helped educate the world about what really happened under the Third Reich. As Eichmann sat behind a specially made bullet-proof glass cage, 112 witnesses told their story, in specific detail, of the horrors they experienced. This, plus 1,600 documents recording the implementation of the Final Solution were submitted against Eichmann. Eichmanns main line of defense was that he was just following orders and that he just played a small role in the killing process. Three judges heard the evidence. The world waited for their decision. The court found Eichmann guilty on all 15 counts and on December 15, 1961 sentenced Eichmann to death. Eichmann appealed the verdict to Israels supreme court but on May 29, 1962 his appeal was rejected. Near midnight between May 31 and June 1, 1962, Eichmann was executed by hanging. His body was then cremated and his ashes scattered at sea.
Wednesday, November 20, 2019
Super Size Me - Essay Example Reality started checking in on the day my father read that article. The facts were astounding, the report detailed that 35.7 percent of adults and 16.9 percent of children aged 2-19 were obese. Further, the report talked of obesity risk factors, the conditionÃ¢â¬â¢s link to diseases such as type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, gallbladder disease and cancer. The information presented awakened my interest in obesity and I have learnt to appreciate every form of knowledge that would help in addressing the growing epidemic. Therefore, when I looked at the assignment Ã¢â¬Å"Super Size MeÃ¢â¬ the whole experience replayed in my mind and I felt grateful for another opportunity to learn something extra on obesity. Super Sizes Me is an American documentary film produced and starred by Morgan Spurlock. Morgan Spurlock is an American, independent film maker whose prominence came from this film. The film documentary which was released in 2004 runs for 98 minutes, it details a drastic lifestyle change to depict the eating habits adopted by most Americans. The star, Morgan Spurlock, takes the viewer through a 30 day period, from February 1 to March 2, 2003, a period in which he engages in unhealthy eating habits at a famous fast food outlet, the McDonalds. McDonalds epitomizes Americans culture of fast foods, it has for long been associated with food that has high fat content. Habitual eaters from the chain and others offering similar menus report higher weights and are most likely to suffer from obesity. This is a general thought, in the film Spurlock undertakes to experiment by taking three meals from the outlet and test the truth behind such an observation. Throughout the thirty days, Spurlock turned up for breakfast, lunch and dinner and consumed every item on the chainÃ¢â¬â¢s menu. Prior to the experiment, Spurlock maintains an absolutely healthy life and his diet is closely monitored by Alexandra, a vegan chef. Besides the diet, Spurlock keeps to his trainerÃ¢â¬â¢s
Tuesday, November 19, 2019
There is a real danger of a house price bubble in London. Discuss - Essay Example House price increase in London indicates that property dealing in London is not a sustainable one. London house prices are becoming unaffordable by citizens as well as immigrants (Ogonna, Chris and Charles, 2013). The house prices are currently eight times higher than that of salary of first time buyer. It has been observed that house prices have a significant impact on economy and banking sector of a geographical region. Increase in house prices clearly denote that middle income group is not being able to purchase a house in London or nearby locations (Tyson, 2003). On the other hand, increased house prices in London are not only a problem for this region but shall also have an impact on surrounding regions. The house price bubble is well represented in figure 1. It is clearly evident that demand towards real estate is significantly high in London. Domestic and overseas demand in London is high so as to sustain real estate selling. People having normal wages are not able to afford f lats or residential places in London. First-time buyer average increased to Ã £159,804 in the previous financial year. A speculative bubble shall be formed in the coming years due to high prices of houses in London. It is a real danger since maximum percentage of individuals would not be able to afford such high priced houses (Telegraph Media Group Limited, 2015). This might adversely affect economic conditions due to lack of residential places in the region. The argument is based on increasing gap between wages and house prices. Individuals need to possess sufficient funds in order to afford housing property. Market demand in real estate sector of London is triggered through prices bid by investors and buyers being inclined towards purchasing real estate properties. In the present scenario, price of a house in London is approximately 600,000 pounds. Other region in UK accounts for low prices much below pre-crisis peak and hence there seems to be a little danger
Saturday, November 16, 2019
Pricing Decision Essay Companies in their endeavor to succeed in the highly competitive and dynamic market are now considering a clear focus on their marketing strategies. This is in order that they may remain relevant in the fast changing business environment, market conditions and consumer preferences. It is important that a company considers the effects of the changes in the business environment including price variations initiated by its competitors This is best done by first analyzing the prices offered by the competitors visa vie the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s cost structure and the competitorÃ¢â¬â¢s chances to change in response to the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s new price offers (Kotler 2003. p 66). Pricing Strategies The company needs to figure out the best strategy to implement in order to achieve the optimum prices for its products. To initiate cost-cutting with a view to improve on the profitability of the company the company must have an understanding of the type of cost that it needs to manage. This will be to a large extent influenced by its style of management, sources of professional advice, the broader vision of the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s goals, communication strategy, and companyÃ¢â¬â¢s capitalization in relation to debt-equity ratio and the cost of borrowing (Sherman 2007. p 3-4). The company also needs to understand the several types of costs that it incurs. The various types of costs are research and development costs, the overheads and administrative costs, human capital costs including health care costs, salaries and employee benefits, infrastructure and system costs, advertising and promotional costs, fixed and variable costs, and debt-servicing costs. The bottom line is to thoroughly examine each of these cost categories and weigh their importance to the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s business operations, consider more efficient available alternatives, and the possible implications of the cost reduction strategy (Sherman 2007. p5 9). A company such as Wal-Mart that has for years been ahead of its competitors by offering the lowest prices for its goods. Wal-Mart is able to manage favorable price cuts by implementing price cut strategies such as endeavoring to reduce its costs by pursuing a tax reduction strategy. This has been through its investments in Real Estate Investment Trusts (REITs) in order to exploit tax loopholes and avoid some of the taxes levied in particular states (Moore 2007. p. 2). Having accomplished the above cost reduction strategy, the company may the come up with appropriate pricing for its products. This is done by first understanding pricing methods. There are six pricing methods that would lead to an informed decision in fixing prices. These are markup pricing method, the target return pricing method, perceived value method of pricing, value based pricing, the going-rate method of pricing and the sealed-bid method of pricing (Kotler 2003. p 66). Implications of Price Cuts and Conclusion The price of the product or service is a major factor that influences customerÃ¢â¬â¢s purchase decision is the marketing mix. A combination of the cost reduction strategy and an appropriate pricing strategy is more likely to benefit the company and enable it attain a competitive advantage over its competitors. By adopting market responsive cost cutting strategies in the communication industry, companies in turn helped create a better way of life whereby customers are now able to communicate more often and at lower prices Salazar 2007. p. 1). This translates to increased profits to the service providers as they are able to sell more units than before. References Kotler, P. (2003). Marketing Management. 11th Ed. New Jersey: Prentice Hall. Moore, M. (2007). Taxing Strategies: Always Cutting Prices, Wal-Mart Attempts to Rollback Taxes. Retrieved March 8, 2009 from http://walmartwatch. com/img/blog/NIMSP_tax_strategies. pdf Salazar, L. C. Cost Cutting Strategies at the Bottom of the Pyramid. Retrieved March 8, 2009 from http://www. lirneasia. net/wp-content/uploads/2007/03/2-lcs-shoestrings-sing-28feb07. pps Sherman, A. J. (2007). Strategies for Cutting Costs and Improving Profitability. Retrieved March 8, 2009 from http://www. sbecouncil. org/uploads/PPT%20Cost%20Cutting%20for%20Growth%20and%20Profitability. ppt
Thursday, November 14, 2019
Strength of Character in No Rainbows, No Roses Ã Ã Ã Every man is born with either a silver spoon in his mouth or a shovel in his hand.Ã If the former is the case, that individual can look forward to a life of relative ease and privilege.Ã If it is the latter, however, the person had best prepare himself to dig through the pile of misfortune life is going to heap upon him.Ã This is the balance of life--that for every man born under a shining sun, there is at least one born under ominous gray thunderclouds.Ã Those individuals who have a natural inclination towards hard times do have a certain advantage, however, over those who always seem to have it easy.Ã True adversity gives birth to a strength of character that those who avoid it can never hope to attain, understand, or even recognize. The most beautiful aspect of this strength of character is that it enables the precious few who possess it to look beyond the hazy curtain of their suffering and reach out to those around them, touching them with something that cannot be defined and will not be forgotten.Ã Perhaps the reason that bad things always seem to happen to good people is that without a foundation of "goodness," this strength of character could not exist and all suffering would be in vain. This stirring strength can be seen in Beverly Dipo's essay, "No Rainbows, No Roses."Ã Dipo, a nurse, relates her experience of being touched by the strength of a dying woman.Ã This woman, Mrs. Trane, was at the end of her long battle with cancer.Ã Dipo had never seen Mrs. Trane before, but when she entered her patient's room, all her previous medical experience told her she was about to witness Mrs. Trane's last night.Ã Gathering the sterile comfort of this medical knowledge around her, Dipo began her usual ministrations, trying to make her patient as comfortable as possible.Ã Touched by the weakness and fragility of her patient, Dipo pulled a chair up and sat by Mrs. Trane's side.Ã She was bothered by the absence of the dying woman's family until Mrs. Trane weakly stated, "I . . . sent . . . my . . . family . . . home . . . tonight . . . didn't want . . . them . . . to .
Monday, November 11, 2019
Educational Entry Level for Professional Nursing Practice The first position paper calling for baccalaureate degree as the minimum requirement for entry into professional nursing was released in 1965 by the American Nurses Association. This stimulates an ongoing frustrating debate among nurses. The Occupational Outlook Handbook published by the US Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics, nursing is the largest healthcare profession with 2. 5 million jobs and is projected to generate 587,000 more jobs between 2006-2016. Despite strength in numbers nurses are the least educated of all the interdisciplinary healthcare team members with whom they collaborate. Teams consist of physiciansÃ¢â¬â¢ pharmacists, speech pathologists, and physical and occupational therapists. Patients are living longer than expected and health care providers need the ability to think critically and provide health care services at levels never before imagined. Each of these disciplines recognized the importance of higher education to deliver appropriate patient care. The health care industry is changing rapidly. Because of advances in medicine, technology and lifesaving techniques. Patients have a better chance of surviving traumatic injury, life threatening disease processes, and delicate surgical procedures that ever before. Results of various studies suggest baccalaureate prepared nurses are more likely to demonstrate professional behaviors important to patient safety. RNÃ¢â¬â¢s educated at baccalaureate level or above have lower risk adjusted mortality rates and lower rates of failure to rescue. The failure to rescue relates to deaths in patients with serious complications. Nursing is a knowledge based profession. Researchers have found perceived differences that are particularly related to education. These differences are perceived to be related to nurses with bachelorÃ¢â¬â¢s degrees: Ã¢â¬ ¢Greater critical thinking skills Ã¢â¬ ¢Less task oriented Ã¢â¬ ¢More professionalism Ã¢â¬ ¢Stronger leadership skills Ã¢â¬ ¢More focused on continuity of care and outcome Ã¢â¬ ¢More focus on psychosocial components, communication and patient teaching. It is important to me for nursing to represent a credible profession that roduces the best independent critical thinking healthcare professionals that provide safe, quality patient care. It is important for nursing leaders and managers when evaluating patient outcomes as they relate to educational levels of nurses. Current research by Linda Aiken found that patient outcomes are related to educational levels of RNÃ¢â¬â¢s. The results of AikenÃ¢â¬â¢s research also found that a 10% increase in nurses with BSN degrees caring for the patients decreased the risk of patient death and failure to rescue by 5%. Everyone in the healthcare system would benefit from improved patient outcomes. Educational mobility to the BSN level is important to positive outcomes, creation of a reliable professional identity and unity among nurses. I believe the salaries of nurses are directly tied to our educational status. More agencies should utilize the human resources departments to develop tuition reimbursement programs and promote higher education of their employees. Educational institutions should develop committees to perform research and look deeper in the nursing educational curriculum and provide surveys to obtain public opinion of nurse educational levels. A common finding from the articles addressed the fact that resources need to be redirected to support baccalaureate entry and end licensure at the associated degree and diploma levels. The on or begins in community colleges and end in four year degree granting institutions. The research included the need for funding to support community college and university collaborations. The development of an action plan for Professional Development is very important. Managers and leaders should include this process in performance improvement sessions and during coaching and counseling. Personal improvement of staff provides the promotion to a better position to assist others. Members of staff should consider returning to school, certification or credentialing, and participation on committees for educational advancement. A plan should be created to develop goals, review goals and action plans frequently, set timelines and commit to completion. Nurses must move further along the educational continuum and prepare a strong well educated workforce. RNÃ¢â¬â¢s are important to patient safety at any level of education and play a vital role in lowering mortality rates, preventing medical errors, and ensuring quality outcomes. Nurses with various levels of educational preparation will continue to practice for many years to come, but a decision about the future education of nurses needs to be made now. References Mark, B. , Salyer, J. , Wan, T. (2003) Professional nursing practice: impact on organizational and patient outcomes. JONA 33(4 ), 224-234. Goodin, H. ( 2004) The shortage in the united states of America: an integrative review of the literature Journal of Advanced Nursing 43 (4), 335-350. Nelson, M. (2002) Nursing practice: looking backward into the future. Online Journal of Nursing. 7 (2) 43-66.
Saturday, November 9, 2019
It cost us $12 to get in, but we learned that all proceed des go towards the Human Rights Education Project which aims to educate refugees and immigrant ants about their legal rights and responsibilities. In the hour or so that we were there, we saw a display of diverse backgrounds and cultures. We ate a variety of unfamiliar foods. My favorite the inning I tried was Baklava made by a woman named Man. It was uplifting to see how proud SSH e was of her culture and what she had made. It was very crowded and as we walked throw GHz we encountered efferent cultures being represented through art, music, dance, and cuisine.T here was one woman displaying what looked like handmade corn husk dolls, squatting next to a man dancing and playing the drums. This was just one example of how the cultures mixed and blended and everyone was just happy to be celebrating this day together. At the end of the nightwear watched Erik George, a Professor of Law at the University of Utah receive the Human Rig hts award for her work against sexual assault. It was an nice closure to the night. This experience was very new for me but I really enjoyed it.The atmosphere was very friendly and I didn't feel like anyone was judging anyone else and there was a sense of appreciation amongst everyone. It was an opportunity for me to see how dive rose Salt Lake really is, something that think people are often oblivious to. This experience was did efferent than other experiences I have had because it was as though I was an outsider learning lee raring about cultures knew nothing about, when usually my culture is the prominent one. Am very happy that ended up attending this event.It made me feel like I had learned a lot a ND exposed myself to cultures I wouldn't have otherwise been exposed to. I now have a deeper a appreciation for the diversity that Salt Lake has to offer. This event is very relatable to what we have been learning in social justice. We have learned that the main reason why stereotype s and generalizations exist is beck cause people are uneducated and ignorant to how things really are. By going to this event, I WA s able to learn about different cultures. I don't think had any prejudices before going but I w as under many else impressions about the people that also call Salt Lake a home.Now, I can say that know a little more than I did before and hopefully I can use that to do my part to stop the discrimination that happens against diverse cultures. There are still so many things I could lee ran about these cultures, but at least now I know they exist and I have seen a small portion of all the beautiful things they do and create. If anyone tried to tell me that Salt Lake wasn't diver SE or that the mixing of cultures throughout the city aren't important I would tell them that I eave seen first hand how wrong that is.
Thursday, November 7, 2019
Price Discrimination in Health Care Essays Price Discrimination in Health Care Paper Price Discrimination in Health Care Paper Abstract The price of health care can vary dramatically depending on insurance coverage, and whether the care received was in network, out of network, government funded, or self-pay (Miller, 2012). Price discrimination is used by many industries such as airlines, hotels, and grocery stores with rewards for frequent users, or higher price for convenience or last minute reservations (Tiemstra, 2006). However, efficiency and fairness demand that new ways should be found to avoid price discrimination in health care in order to ensure patients equal access to care and economic justice. Uninsured or self-pay patients should not be charged rates significantly higher than those with Medicare, Medicaid, or insurance. Prices for health care should also be more transparent to allow patients to accurately shop for best prices and values in health care. Imagine a system in which you go to the grocery store and are told that the price you must pay for your groceries is dependent on whether you have a job, and if you have a job the price is dependent on where you work. If you are work for a certain employer the price you will pay is near wholesale, for another retail, another twenty to thirty percent more, and if self-employed or unemployed you must pay a price three to four times higher for these groceries. Unfortunately this is the way our current health system works. Most hospitals charge those without insurance three to four times the price of that paid by those with insurance or government coverage such as Medicare or Medicaid. New ways should be found to avoid price discrimination in health care in order to ensure patients equal access to care and economic justice. Uninsured or self-pay patients should not be charged rates significantly higher than those with Medicare, Medicaid, or insurance. Prices for health care should also be more transparent to allow patients to accurately shop for best prices and values in health care. Price discrimination Price discrimination is the practice of charging different customers different prices for the same product or service. While price discrimination is not necessarily unethical, the price should have commensurate value for the price charged. If this condition is met price discrimination is not necessarily wrong. It can be considered ethical for one to be given a better deal than another. However, if it is used to take advantage of those with a special need or the ignorance of customers it may be unethical. Under the Robinson-Patman Act 1936 it is unlawful when it substantially lessons competition or tends to create a monopoly. This has been cited in numerous lawsuits against hospitals and HMOÃ¢â¬â¢s. Because an uninsured person has limited resources to contest hospital rates class action attorneys have tried to obtain class action status for clients with limited success (Anderson, 2007). Many industries and firms utilize price discrimination because it can have a huge impact on company profits. It is much easier today because of improvements in technology to separate patients by demographic information to maximize the amount they are willing or able to pay (Elegido, 2009). Price discrimination is an attempt to get each consumer to pay for the product the highest price he is willing to pay. Price discrimination is common in industries that have high fixed costs and low marginal costs. Setting prices at the level of marginal costs would make it difficult to recover original investment costs. In order for price discrimination to occur there are several conditions that must exist. The producer must have information about what the maximum price of each group of consumers are or have reliable indicators of such. This information is obtained through prices for services set by government diagnosis related groupings for payment that set a near minimum price. The hospital then establishes a charge-master file that is several times more for each item. This may be updated several times a year and is not published for the public. There must not be significant competition from rival firms. For many consumers there are not multiple options for hospital care resulting in limited competition that might lesson cost. Arbitrage must not be possible. The buyer cannot resell the product for a higher price to others (Elegido, 2009). The uninsured or self-pay patient In a study published as a Web Exclusive by the journal Health Affairs, it was determined that approximately half of U. S. bankruptcies, were reportedly attributable to illness or medical bills (Anderson, 2007). It is estimated that three-fourths of these individuals were covered by insurance when they got sick. However, skimpier policies, rising health care costs, and the cancellation of coverage when illness results in job loss have increased the financial risk for those with insurance as well as the uninsured. When patients lose their insurance due to inability to work they become vulnerable to higher self-pay prices. While there are many uninsured that are unable or wonÃ¢â¬â¢t pay their bills, hospitals pursue those that donÃ¢â¬â¢t pay with aggressive collections activities. Price discrimination in health care Hospitals do not charge every patient the same price. Uninsured and self-pay patients are often charged two and one half to four times as much for the same care as those covered by insurance or government plans such as Medicare or Medicaid. This gap has grown substantially since the mid 1980Ã¢â¬â¢s (Anderson, 2007). Patients that are uninsured or self-pay are often presented with bills that reflect full charges derived from the hospitalÃ¢â¬â¢s charge-master file. There are five categories of patients that routinely receive undiscounted bills based on charge-master files created by each hospital. These include those that are international visitors, those that are uninsured, people covered by automobile insurers, people covered by workmanÃ¢â¬â¢s compensation plans, and those covered by health plans that are lacking contracts with the hospital such as individuals that utilize health care savings accounts or are out of network. Equals should be treated equally in order to satisfy justice and should appropriately balance the gains of trade between buyer and seller with neither side having disproportionate power over the other (Tiemstra, 2006). If prices are directly related to costs and equal for all, the allocation of resources will be more efficient. The ratio of charges to costs measures the relationship between actual charges for services and Medicare allowable charges. In 2004 this ratio for U. S. hospitals was 3. 7 meaning that for every $100 in Medicare charges the average charge was $307. There is considerable variation in hospital charges depending on the type of hospital and the setting, rural or urban. The gross to net revenues overall averaged 2. 57 meaning that collected from all payers, for each $100 collected the initial charge was $257. Since 1984 the charge to cost ratio has increased from 1. 35 to 3. 07 and the gross to net revenues from 1. 25 to 2. 57 in 2004 (Anderson, 2007). Hospital charges have increased faster than costs. Increased charges have not been shown to significantly increase revenues however because as charges rise insurers negotiate for larger discounts and only self-pay patients are expected to pay these higher charges (Anderson, 2007). In Pennsylvania, hospitals collect only about one fourth of what they charge. These discounts are reflected on explanation of benefits forms from insurers. The only ones expected to pay the full charges are often those least able to pay them (Miller, 2012). There is evidence that discounts and price discrimination are making health care less affordable because fixed prices, discounts, and variable reimbursement systems distort normal marketplace competition. Patients and business are the losers as hospitals and health plans try to get bigger to Ã¢â¬Å"winÃ¢â¬ price negotiation. Insurance is discounted from the standard billed charge, Medicare and Medicaid pay flat rates and those without medical insurance pay the highest charges. When money spent is from somewhere else such as insurance or government coverage there is no incentive for hospitals or patients to control costs and may result in unnecessary medical costs for unneeded tests and procedures when insurance deductibles are met (Lilly, 2011). Cost shifting Cost shift policies in hospitals have resulted in shifting of costs to private patients due to inadequate payments from state and federal government plans such as Medicare and Medicaid. Cost shifting is also use to cover bad debts of unpaid hospital bills. Cost shifting acts like a tax on the costs of private pay patients. The burden of cost shifting falls on non-Medicare and non-Medicaid households in proportion to the sum of their out of pocket expenses and hospital premiums. The government does not assume costs of serving people that are ineligible for government programs but that are unable to pay their bills. They also do not cover common costs for research and teaching. Private pay patients subsidize public program beneficiaries through cost shifting. Because Medicare and Medicaid patients utilize socially valuable resources these costs must be borne by society. These costs may be covered implicitly through cost shifting by price discrimination or explicitly when government taxes are used to finance the full cost (Meyer Johnson, 1983). Hospitals obtain what revenues they can from insurers and those over whom they have little control such as Medicare and Medicaid. They then demand as much as possible from those over whom they have the most leverage. Over fifty percent of health care costs are paid by state and federal governments. This system results in lower incentives to be more efficient and contain costs. Charges for self-pay and uninsured patients are inflated to compensate for discounts given to insurers and low reimbursement rates of Medicare and Medicaid. Public program beneficiaries are subsidized by private pay patients (Lilly, 2011). Recommendations The commercial health industry has called for equitable payment rules for all patients including mandatory rate setting or doing away with rates by diagnosis and cost shifting in favor of transparency and the same rate no matter the payer source. One regulatory approach might be to have the government regulate prices so hospitals cannot charge more based on their type of insurance coverage. Maryland has done this and their hospital costs are lower than other states. However the regulation of prices removes incentives for hospitals to look for innovations to deliver care in a more cost effective way. Another option would be to establish maximum rates that can be charged to all payers for medical care. This may be set by the hospital voluntarily, be set by legislation, or have the rate determined by courts. A single rate would also decrease administrative and collection costs associated with multiple charge rates by payer type. Price transparency has been suggested as a tool to allow patients to comparison shop. Hospitals may increase transparency by limiting the price that can be charged above the Medicare rate. Hospitals could advertise their charge as being a certain percentage above the Medicare rate for comparison. Another approach would be systemic changes that let hospitals charge patients any price but all must be charged the same and prices must be made public. Instead of being restricted to in-network providers, patients could go anywhere but be able to make choices based on quality of care and pricing. Greater transparency in pricing and an ability to make informed decisions based on quality of care and price may allow patients to choose those hospitals that give quality care at lower costs. Transparency in pricing would encourage people to economize on the use of routine health services. These changes would make consumers more aware of and accountable for health decisions based on choice, limits, and patient responsibility (Miller, 2012). Health care reform is necessary and decreasing the use of price discrimination in health care pricing is just one component of those needed. Though the Affordable Care Act 2010 may increase the number of patients with insurance there still will be those that are uninsured. Price discrimination in health care should not be allowed. No patient should be charged more than another for the same service based solely on their payer source. References Anderson, G. F. (n. d. ). From soak the rich to soak the poor: Recent trends in hospital pricing. Health Affairs, 26(3), 780-789. Elegido, J. (2009). The ethics of price discrimination. In 2009 BEN-Africa Annual Conference (pp. 1-19). Accra, Ghana: GIMPA. Retrieved April 21, 2012, from benafrica. org/downloads/Elegido,%20Juan. pdf Geyman, M. D. , J. , Fegan M. D. , C. , Skala, N. (2005, February 2). Bankruptcy Study Highlights Need For National Health Insurance. Http://www. pnhp. org/facts/bankruptcy_study. php. Retrieved April 21, 2012, from pnhp. org/news/2005/february/bankruptcy_study_hig. php Lilly, J. (2011, June 16). Medicare reform; Its the price-fixing, stupid. Www. Americanthinker. com. Retrieved April 7, 2012, from www. americanthinker. com/articles Meyer, J. A. , Bruce, W. R. (1983). Cost shifting in health care: An economic analysis. Health Affairs, 2(2), 20-35. Miller, H. D. (2012, March 04). Price discrimination in health care. : Price Discrimination in Health Care. Retrieved May 04, 2012, from pittsburghfuture. blogspot. com/2012/03/price-discrimination-in-health-care. html
Tuesday, November 5, 2019
Beowulf Essay Questions A hero is defined in classical mythology as a man, especially the son of a god and a mortal, who is famous for possessing some extraordinary gift. Beowulf, the title character of an epic poem and Superman, a more modern day hero are both prime examples. Beowulf and Superman exhibit several differences, but they also share some similar qualities. Beowulf possessed great strength that separated him from other men. Being able to use a sword that no ordinary man was able to carry gives the feeling that Beowulf is something more than a human being. It makes him special and causes him to stand out from all other men. Fame is something that makes a hero more noted. Beowulfs popularity had spread all over the world. He never let this go to his head and he never thought that he was better than everyone else because of it. By engaging in this foolish contest, Beowulf nearly got himself killed trying to prove he was better than Brecca. Jealousy is never a good trait, especially for a hero. Reve nge is never a trait of a true hero. A hero has no scores to settle. A true hero should fight only to protect others and not out of his own rage. Also, with Beowulf being a human being, he was not invincible. Beowulf didnt realize this until he fought the dragon. He knew nothing of the dragon, its strengths, weaknesses or powers. Beowulf found out what the dragon was capable of and what its powers were. He knew that it could breathe fire, so he got a shield that would protect him. He planned his attack and thought it trough carefully. He was doubtful about himself and knew that this battle would be his last. Superman, also known as Clark Kent, is one of the most popular modern day hero(not as cool as Batman mind you but relates better to Beowulf). Superman spent most of his time saving people from natural disasters and corrupt businessmen. He would level slums to force the city to build decent housing, and he would use his powers to terrorize munitions makers and evil monsters. When Superman encounters Kryptonite for the first time it first appears as a green glowing substance, which Superman uses his powers on to trace its origin. Superman then pays for his discovery of Kryptonite when Luthor learns to synthesize it, causing it to be a very dangerous threat to superman. Gravity of Earth did not prove to be a good enough reason for Supermans powers, thus they attributed his super-senses to the yellow sun radiation, and his muscular strength, speed, and flight due to the Earths gravity. Due to the new explanation of his powers, Superman no longer had super powers on a world without a yellow sun. Lex Luthor and other villains began to create weapons that used red sun radiation which made Supermans life miserable. During the course of the battle for Truth and Justice, man and sword came together at last. Holding the sword, Superman found himself expanding, spreading across the winds of the universe. The entire history of creation flooded his mind, and his consciousness expanded as he became and all-seeing and all knowing protector. He then released the sword. The sword told him of his greatness, and then headed back into space waiting for him to retrieve it and fulfill his destiny. He had gone from being just one of many super-beings from a super-planet, to being one of the best heroes of the human race (Batman is the best). Beowulf and Superman exhibit several differences, but they also share some similar qualities. In our time, they are both considered to be extraordinary heroes.
Saturday, November 2, 2019
Marketing - Essay Example Here all the unattractive ideas and unfeasible ideas are weeded out leaving only the ideas where future action is possible. Concept Development and Testing: Here in this stage the idea is presented to the customers and their views and opinions of the ideas are documented. This eliminates the risk of any losses if the ideas are not accepted by the customers (Kahn). Business Analysis: This stage involves the business and financial analysis of the ideas and here the financial risks and the other business related analysis are completed. Prototype Development: Here the idea is developed and the product is developed in the physical form and the basic marketing strategy is developed. Test Marketing: At this stage the company puts the product up for sale in a few areas to check for the performance under the marketing plan (Jobber). This provides an insight to the company for the effectiveness of the marketing strategy and the demand of the product. Commercialization: The last stage of the ne w product development stage is the commercialization, where the complete marketing plan is developed and the full production is set into action